Published in International Journal of Emerging Technologies on Sun Mar 10 2019 18:28:50 GMT-0400 (Eastern Daylight Time)
Vol: 7, No: 2, Page: 12-134
dr. Chief Editor , Biology
Rhamnolipids, the extracellular glycolipids are one of the five categories of biosurfactants which are composed of L-rhamnose and β-hydroxyalkanoic acid moieties and are produced by Pseudomonas spp. Other categories of biosurfactants are phospholipids and fatty acids, lipo-peptides/proteins, polymeric and particulate biosurfactants. Rhamnolipids are widely interested biosurfactants because of their versatile applicable areas like agricultural, pharmaceutical, food, cosmetics, detergent industries, oil industries, bioremediation etc. Jarvis and Johnson reported rhamnolipids for the first time in 1949 and till now, focus has been done to determine its potential applications. There are four types of rhamnolipids: mono-rhamnolipids (Rh1), which contain one rhamnose sugar attached to two molecules of b- hydroxydecanoic acid; di-rhamnolipids (Rh2), which contain two rhamnose sugars attached to two molecules of b-hydroxydecanoic acid; tri-rhamnolipids (Rh3), which contain one rhamnose sugar attached to one molecule of b-hydroxydecanoic acid; and tetra- rhamnolipids (Rh4), which contain two rhamnose sugars attached to one molecule of b-hydroxydecanoic acid (figure 1). The Rh1 (L-rhamnosyl-L-rhamnosyl- β-hydroxydecanoyl-β-hydroxydecanoate) and Rh2 (L-rhamnosyl-β- hydrodecanoyl-β-hydroxydecanoate) are the principal glycolipids produced by P. aeruginosa.
Rhamnolipid biosurfactants can be produced from inexpensive raw materials that are available in large quantities, such as industrial wastes and byproducts. The carbon source, which may come from hydrocarbons, carbohydrates, or lipids, is the most important factor in rhamnolipids production. However, rhamnolipids production also depends on several other environmental and nutritional factors, including nitrogen, multivalent ions, agitation rate, temperature, pH, phosphates, and metals. In the last three decades, a huge research has been done on rhamnolipids revealing their industrial applications in the global market. Their ‘eco-friendly’ property attracts the global attraction to be applied in industry to replace chemically synthesized surfactants especially in medical and health industrial sectors.
In this manuscript, ideal properties of rhamnolipids and their potential in cosmetic industry will be discussed. The current status of biosurfactants in cosmetic industry and the potential of rhamnolipids to be the next-generation biosurfactants across industries especially cosmetic industry, will also be discussed.